The Great Old Ones and the Elder Gods didn’t seem to know much about technology.
They flew through space with magic, they did some basic biology stuff but nothing particularly interesting (except maybe the MiGo).
Can new Elder Gods or Great Old Ones appear? Can Azathoth sire new gods? Maybe Nyarlathotep sets up a science project involving some Deep Ones and a few used Commodore 64s?
Or consider an Iain Banks-style set of Minds: hyperdimensional AI gets bootstrapped and then discovers that, ok, science and physics and string theory but also what the FUCK is happening out there in the Pleiades?
Can you fight a shoggoth with particle beams? Or what happens when the shoggoth learn about particle beams?